Associação Brasileira de Apoio e Desenvolvimento da Arte – Capoeira

O início – Η κορυφή

O fundador da Capoeira Abadá é Mestre Camisa. Desde que ele descobriu a capoeira, a sua vida foi inteiramente dedicada a esta arte até o ponto de desenvolver uma capoeira formal. Sua estrutura consiste num esquema de treinamento mas também numa forma de vida baseada no respeito a todos os níveis: primeiro para a Natureza até toda a raça humana. É difícil explicar o significado do Abadá, pois envolve quase todos os setores da sua vida de alguma forma, não é apenas uma série de chutes ou um tipo de luta. É por isso que todos podem aprender capoeira, mas nem todos podem ser um capoeirista da Abadá.
Vamos “ouvir” como Mestre Camisa nós explica como tudo isso aconteceu.

O primeiro contato com a capoeira

“No interior da Bahia eu sempre via pessoas fazendo os movimentos de pernadas, jogando, mas de forma espontânea, sem berimbau. Mais tarde Camisa Roxa foi estudar em Salvador. Quando voltava, nos mostrava as técnicas de capoeira que estava aprendendo com Mestre Bimba. Esses pequenos aprendizados serviam de brincadeira entre os primos e aumentava nosso interesse pela capoeira. Além disso, as pessoas mais velhas da região, sempre tinham alguma história de capoeiristas e suas façanhas: um que batia em 3 ou 4 ao mesmo tempo, outro que tinha o corpo fechado” (…) “naquela época todo mundo usava facão na cintura, eu gostava de ficar vendo os mais velhos mostrando as técnicas de manuseio do facão” (…) “Quando se entrava num lugar de respeito, como a igreja, por exemplo, se tirava o chapéu e o facão e os deixava na entrada”.

Da Fazenda Estiva até Salvador

“Nossa família tinha uma pequena fazenda chamada Estiva, onde morávamos, que ficava no interior da Bahia, dentro do distrito de Jacobina. Em Jacobina os colégios só ofereciam escolaridade até o científico. Os mais velhos sempre acabavam indo para Salvador, a fim de completar os estudos. Meu pai adiou ao máximo minha ida para Salvador, talvez porque tenha apostado na minha vocação para cuidar da fazenda, quando ele morreu fomos todos morar na Lapinha em Salvador…”

As rodas de rua e das festas populares

(…) “em Salvador eu gostava de freqüentar as festas populares, ver, e depois participar, das rodas de rua” (…) “Passei a jogar com mais freqüência nas rodas do Mestre Valdemar, na Liberdade (Pero Vaz)” (…) “Camisa Roxa me encontrou de madrugada jogando capoeira numa roda e achou que aquilo era perigoso para um menino de 12 anos. Em conversa com minha mãe ele alertou para o perigo da situação, e ela, que até então não me permitia treinar capoeira. Por achar que eu não ia muito bem nos estudos, achou por bem me matricular na academia do Mestre Bimba. Mas o que ela não soube que uma vez matriculado na academia, eu passei a fazer as duas coisas, treinar na academia à noite e jogar nas rodas de rua e das festas de dia…”

A academia de Mestre Bimba

(…)” A primeira vez que fui à academia de Mestre Bimba foi com meu irmão, apenas como visitante, pois ainda morava na fazenda.Fiquei atento a tudo que acontecia na aula, depois quando meu irmão me deixou no seu apartamento em Salvador para ir estudar, eu afastava os móveis e ficava tentando repetir tudo o que vi “(…)” Já matriculado treinava com empenho, fui batizado por um aluno chamado Calango e, em mais ou menos, um ano eu já era aluno formado do Mestre, em função da base com que entrei na “academia…”(…)” Aprendi muito da capoeira conversando com Mestre Bimba, ele já era um homem velho não usava mais o corpo para demonstrar “(…)” Mestre Bimba nos transmitia muita energia em suas aulas, o que facilitava o aprendizado “(…)” A academia era em forma de quadrado, na hora da roda os alunos sentavam no banco e ele tocava o seu berimbau sem nenhum acompanhamento “

A chegada no Rio

(…)” Naquela época já havia o comentário que Mestre Bimba ia para Goiás enquanto o meu irmão estava preparando uma turnê pelo Brasil com o grupo folclórico Olodum Maré. Eu, que sempre assistia os ensaios, resolvi acompanhar esta turnê de um ano “(…)” Participava de vários números, mas com maior freqüência os de capoeira “(…)” Quando iniciou a viagem eu já intuía que não voltaria mais a morar em Salvador, nas cidades onde passava, eu sempre avaliava a possibilidade de morar ali “(…)” No Rio de Janeiro a show ficou em cartaz durante 3 meses e depois seguiu para Europa com o nome de Brasil Tropical “(…) ” A cidade me cativou, foi uma grande identificação com o samba, as escolas de samba, os morros, a vida social e a cultura de uma forma geral”(…)” não podia seguir com o grupo, pois tinha que ir para Salvador para estudar”(…)”o navio partiu para Europa e eu no cais assistindo, apenas com minha passagem para Salvador e alguns trocados que dava para mais uns dias de pensão. Rasguei a passagem e apostei no meu sonho de dar aulas de capoeira…”

Vivendo de Capoeira

(…) meu primeiro aluno foi um gaùcho de Pelotas que tinha assistido o show do Olodum Maré em Porto Alegre e ao passar na rua viu uma plaqueta indicando Aulas de Capoeira. Ao entrar me reconheceu do show Furacões da Bahia do grupo (…) Depois entraram outros como o Clàudio Moreno (…) Comecei ensinando capoeira em cima do método do Mestre Bimba; mais tarde fui sentindo a falta de algo com mais motivação, empolgação, sei lá então eu passei a acrescentar algumas coisas ao método para adequá-lo ao momento e as circunstâncias (…) Nessa época eu sentia muita solidão a noite no meu quartinho, eu ouvia músicas que falavam da Bahia e chorava. Nos fins de semana e feriados eu não tinha rumo e então batia uma saudade danada. O dia custava a passar. Foi então que passei a dar treinos nos fins de semana para ficar menos tempo sozinho.

Fundação da Abadá Capoeira

(…) A idéia da ABADÁ surgiu a partir desta dificuldade que passei no início, a falta de uma estrutura para dar aulas, para redigir um documento para moradia para discussão sobre técnicas, conceitos e graduação; mas acho que principalmente para dar uma estrutura familiar a tantas pessoas que deixam para trás suas cidades e suas famílias para viver de capoeira. Talvez por ter passado pelo que passei me juntei aos alunos que davam aulas aqui no Rio e em outros estados para fundar uma Associação que de alguma forma nos desse estrutura e amparasse os novos capoeiristas (…) A busca pelo nome demorou porque tinha que sintetizar o que era a associação e no mesmo tempo tinha que ter uma relação básica com capoeira.

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The founder of the Abadà Capoeira is Mestre Camisa. Since he discovered the capoeira, his life has been entirely dedicated to this art till the point of developing a formal capoeira. His structure involves a training scheme but also a way of living founded on the respect at every level: first to the Nature till the whole human race. It’s difficult to explain the meaning of the Abadà as it involves almost all the sector of your life in some way, it’s not only a series of kicks or a type of fight. That’s why everyone can learn capoeira but not everyone can be an Abadà capoeirista.
Let’s “hear” Mestre Camisa telling us how all this happened.

First Contact with Capoeira

“In the interior of Bahia I always saw people doing movements with their legs, playing, but in a spontaneous form and without the berimbau. Later, Camisa Roxa went to study in Salvador. When he returned he showed us the Capoeira techniques he was learning with Mestre Bimba. These little lessons were more like games among cousins and served to increase our interest in Capoeira. Besides this, the oldest people in the region were always telling stories of Capoeiristas and their feats: one who beat three or four people at once, another who had a corpo fechado(1)” (..) ” In this time, all the men carried a machete in their belt. I always liked to watch the older men demonstrating their agility in handling the machetes.”(..)” When you went into a respectable place, like a church for example, you removed your hat and took off your machete and left them at the entrance.

From the Estiva Ranch to Salvador

Our family lived in a small ranch called Estiva. It was in the interior of the state of Bahia, in the district of Jacobina. In Jacobina, the schools only went up to the primary level, the older students had to go Salvador in order to finish their studies. My father delayed as much as possible my going to Salvador, perhaps because he was hoping I would stay and take over the family ranch. When he passed away, the family moved to Lapinha in Salvador.

The Street Rodas and Popular Parties

“(..)” in Salvador, I liked to go to the hang out on the streets, to see, and later to participate in, street rodas. “(..)” I started playing more and more in the rodas of Mestre Valdemar, in Liberdade (Pero Vaz). “(..)” Camisa Roxa saw me early one morning playing capoeira in a roda and thought that this was dangerous thing for a twelve-year-old boy. He spoke to my mother about the danger of the situation and she, who up until then had not allowed me to formally study capoeira because she thought it would interfere with my studies, thought it would be a good idea for me to enroll in Mestre Bimba’s Capoeira academy. But what she didn’t know was that once I enrolled in his academy I would spend all my time doing two things: training in the academy at night and hanging out and playing in the street rodas during the day…”

Mestre Bimba’s Academy

(..)” The first time I went to Mestre Bimba’s academy was with my brother. I was only visiting, at this time I still lived on the family ranch. I paid attention to everything that went on in the class. Later, my brother went to his classes and left me alone in his apartment in Salvador, I moved all the furniture out of the way and tried to repeat what I had seen. “(..)” Once I enrolled in the academy I was a dedicated student and trained with determination. I was baptized by a student called Calango and in a year, more or less, I had already reached the level formado in Mestre Bimba’s Capoeira group; although this also had a lot to do with my level of proficiency in Capoeira before I entered the academy… “(..)” I learned a lot about Capoeira just from talking with Mestre Bimba. He was already an old man and couldn’t physically demonstrate things”(..) “Mestre Bimba transmitted a lot of energy to us in his classes, which helped the learning process.” (..) “The layout of the academy was in the form of a square. When it was time for the roda the students would sit on the bench and Mestre Bimba would play his berimbau without any accompaniment.

Arrival in Rio

“(..)” At this time there was already a lot of talk that Mestre Bimba would go to Goiás state. My brother was training to go on a tour with the folklore show Olodum Maré. I always went to the group’s rehearsals and resolved to go along on the yearlong tour “(..)” I participated in various numbers, but mostly in the ones that had Capoeira”(..) “When I left to go on tour I already had an intuition that I wouldn’t come back to live in Salvador, in all the cities we passed through, I always imagined what it would be like to stay and live for a while. “(..)” In Rio de Janeiro the show was booked for three months and after that it went to Europe under the name Brasil Tropical” (..) “The city of Rio captivated me; the pervasiveness of samba, the samba schools, the morros, the social and cultural life in general.” (…) “I couldn’t go to Europe with the group because I had to go back to Salvador to study” (..) “the ship left for Europe with me on the docks watching it to go, with only my ticket to Salvador and a little money that would pay for a few days in the hotel. I tore up my ticket and decided to take a chance on my dream of giving Capoeira lessons.

Living by Capoeira

My first student was a ‘gaúcho’ (2) from the city of Pelótas who had seen the Olodum Maré show in Porto Alegre. While walking in the street one day he saw a small sign indicating Capoeira lessons. Upon entering, he recognized me from the piece Furacões da Bahia”(..) “Later others joined, such as Claudio Moreno” (..) “I begin teaching Capoeira in the style of Mestre Bimba. However, I felt something was lacking; motivation, interest, I don’t know, so I began to add some things to the method to make it more appropriate to the moment and to the circumstances of that time” (..) “In this time I felt very alone and isolated, at night in my room I would listen to songs that spoke of Bahia and cry. On the weekends and holidays I felt adrift and my heath began to suffer. These days were difficult to endure, so I began to give lessons on the weekends to spend less time alone.

Founding of ABADÁ Capoeira

“(..)” The idea for ABADÁ came to me shortly after I passed through this difficult period. The lack of a formal structure for classes, the need to draw up a basic lesson plan, for a place to study and teach, to debate techniques and discuss concepts, and to define rankings were all important; but I think principally the impetus was to give a family-like structure to so many people who had left behind their cities, their families, to dedicate themselves to Capoeira. Perhaps because I went through what I did, I joined other students who gave Capoeira lessons in Rio and in other states, to found an association that in some way would give us a structure and support new Capoeiristas” (..) ” The search for a name took a long time because it had to sum up what the organization was all about and at the same time it had to have a basic relationship with Capoeira.

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Ο ιδρυτής της Abadà Capoeira είναι ο Mestre Camisa. Από τη στιγμή που ανακάλυψε την capoeira, η ζωή του έχει εξ ολοκλήρου αφιερωθεί σε αυτή την τέχνη μέχρι το σημείο ανάπτυξης μιας επίσημης capoeira. Η δομή του περιλαμβάνει ένα πρόγραμμα προπόνησης αλλά επίσης και έναν τρόπο ζωής βασισμένο στον σεβασμό σε κάθε επίπεδο: αρχικά προς τη Φύση έως και σε ολόκληρο το ανθρώπινο είδος. Είναι δύσκολο να εξηγήσει κανείς το νόημα της Abadà καθώς περιλαμβάνει σχεδόν κάθε τομέα της ζωής μας κατά κάποιο τρόπο. Δεν πρόκειται μόνο για μια σειρά από κλωτσιές ή για ένα είδος πάλης. Αυτός είναι ο λόγος που ο καθένας μπορεί να μάθει capoeira αλλά δεν μπορούν όλοι να γίνουν Abadà capoeiristas.
Ας «ακούσουμε» τον Mestre Camisa να μας λέει πως συνέβησαν όλα αυτά.

Η πρώτη επαφή με την Capoeira

“Στο εσωτερικό της Bahia έβλεπα πάντα ανθρώπους να κάνουν κινήσεις με τα πόδια τους, να παίζουν, αλλά με αυθόρμητο τρόπο και χωρίς berimbau. Αργότερα, ο Camisa Roxa πήγε να σπουδάσει στο Σαλβαδόρ. Όταν επέστρεψε, μας έδειξε τεχνικές της Capoeira που μάθαινε με τον Mestre Bimba. Αυτά τα μικρά μαθήματα ήταν περισσότερο παιχνίδι ανάμεσα σε ξαδέλφια αλλά αύξησαν το ενδιαφέρον μας για την Capoeira. Εκτός αυτού, οι μεγαλύτεροι σε ηλικία της περιοχής πάντα έλεγαν ιστορίες για Capoeristas και τα κατορθώματα τους: για κάποιον που χτύπησε τρία ή τέσσερα άτομα ταυτόχρονα, για κάποιον άλλο που είχε corpo fechado (1)” (..) “Εκείνη την εποχή, όλοι οι άντρες κουβαλούσαν ένα μαχαίρι στη ζώνη τους. “(..)” Όταν πήγαινες σε ένα ευπρεπές μέρος, όπως η εκκλησία για παράδειγμα, έβγαζες το καπέλο σου και το μαχαίρι σου και τα άφηνες στην είσοδο.”

Από το αγρόκτημα Estiva στο Σαλβαδόρ

Η οικογένεια μας ζούσε σε ένα μικρό αγρόκτημα με το όνομα Estiva. Βρισκόταν στο εσωτερικό της πολιτείας της Bahia, στην περιοχή της Jacobina. Στη Jacobina, τα σχολεία που υπήρχαν ήταν μόνο πρωτοβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης, οι μεγαλύτεροι μαθητές έπρεπε να πάνε στο Σαλβαδόρ για να τελειώσουν τις σπουδές τους. Ο πατέρας μου καθυστέρησε όσο ήταν δυνατό την αναχώρηση μου για το Σαλβαδόρ, ίσως επειδή ήλπιζε ότι θα έμενα και θα αναλάμβανα το οικογενειακό αγρόκτημα. Όταν απεβίωσε, η οικογένεια μετακόμισε στη Lapinha στο Σαλβαδόρ.

Οι Rodas του δρόμου και διάσημα πάρτυ

“(..)” Στο Σαλβαδόρ, μου άρεσε να κυκλοφορώ στους δρόμους, να βλέπω, και αργότερα να συμμετέχω σε rodas του δρόμου. “(..)” Άρχισα να παίζω όλο και περισσότερο σε rodas του Mestre Valdemar, στο Leberdade (Pero Vaz). “(..)” Ο Camisa Roxa με είδε νωρίς ένα πρωινό να παίζω capoeira σε μια roda και σκέφτηκε ότι αυτό ήταν επικίνδυνο για ένα δωδεκάχρονο αγόρι. Μίλησε στη μητέρα μου για τον κίνδυνο της κατάστασης και εκείνη, η οποία μέχρι τότε δεν μου είχε επιτρέψει να σπουδάσω επίσημα capoeira καθώς φοβόταν ότι αυτό θα παρενέβαινε στις σπουδές μου, σκέφτηκε ότι θα ήταν καλή ιδέα να γραφτώ στην Ακαδημία Capoeira του Mestre Bimba. Αλλά αυτό που δεν ήξερε ήταν ότι μόλις γραφόμουν στην Ακαδημία του, θα περνούσα όλο μου τον χρόνο κάνοντας δύο πράγματα: προπόνηση στην Ακαδημία τη νύχτα και παιχνίδι σε rodas του δρόμου κατά τη διάρκεια της ημέρας…”

Η Ακαδημία του Mestre Bimba

(..)” Η πρώτη φορά που πήγα στην Ακαδημία του Mestre Bimba ήταν με τον πατέρα μου. Απλά την επισκέφτηκα την πρώτη φορά, ζούσα ακόμα στο οικογενειακό αγρόκτημα. Πρόσεχα τα πάντα που συνέβαιναν μέσα την αίθουσα. Αργότερα, όταν ο αδερφός μου είχε πάει στα μαθήματα του στο Σαλβαδόρ, μετέφερα όλα τα έπιπλα στην άκρη και προσπάθησα να επαναλάβω ό, τι είχα δει. “(..)” Από τη στιγμή που γράφτηκα στην Ακαδημία ήμουν αφοσιωμένος μαθητής και προπονούμουν με αποφασιστικότητα. Βαφτίστηκα από έναν μαθητή, τον Calango, και μέσα σε ένα χρόνο περίπου είχα ήδη φτάσει το επίπεδο formado στο γκρουπ του Mestre Bimba. Αν και αυτό είχε να κάνει και με το επίπεδο μου στην capoeira προτού μπω στην Ακαδημία… “(..)” Έμαθα πολλά για την capoeira μόνο από το να μιλάω με τον Mestre Bimba. Ήταν ήδη ένας ηλικιωμένος άνδρας και δεν μπορούσε σωματικά να δείξει πράγματα “(..)” Ο Mestre Bimba μετέδιδε πολύ ενέργεια σε εμάς στα μαθήματα του, πράγμα το οποίο βοήθησε στη μαθησιακή διαδικασία.” (..) “Η διάταξη της Ακαδημίας ήταν σε τετράγωνο σχήμα. Μόνο όταν ήταν η ώρα της roda, οι μαθητές κάθονταν στον πάγκο και ο Mestre Bimba έπαιζε το berimbau του χωρίς καμία συνοδεία.

Η άφιξη στο Ριο

“(..)”Εκείνη την περίοδο γινόταν πολύς λόγος ότι Mestre Bimba θα πήγαινε στην πολιτεία Goiás. Ο αδελφός μου προπονούταν για να πάει σε μια περιοδεία με την folklore παράσταση Olodum Maré. Πάντα πήγαινα τις πρόβες της ομάδας και αποφάσισα να ταξιδέψω μαζί τους στην ετήσια περιοδεία “(..)” Συμμετείχα σε διάφορα νούμερα, αλλά κυρίως σε εκείνα που είχαν Capoeira” (..) Όταν έφυγα για την περιοδεία, είχα ήδη τη διαίσθηση ότι δεν θα επέστρεφα να ζήσω στο Σαλβαδόρ. Σε όλες τις πόλεις που περνούσαμε, πάντα φανταζόμουν πώς θα ήταν να έμενα και να ζούσα εκεί για λίγο. “(..)” Στο Ρίο ντε Τζανέιρο, η παράσταση ήταν κανονισμένη για τρεις μήνες και μετά από εκεί θα περιόδευε στην Ευρώπη με τον τίτλο Brasil Tropical” (..) “Η πόλη του Ρίο με αιχμαλώτισε. Η διαπεραστικότητα της σάμπα, των σχολών σάμπα, οι λόφοι , η κοινωνική και πολιτιστική ζωή γενικά.” (..) “ Δεν μπορούσα να πάω μαζί με την ομάδα στην Ευρώπη γιατί έπρεπε να πάω πίσω στο Σαλβαδόρ να σπουδάσω” (..) “Το πλοίο έφευγε για την Ευρώπη με εμένα στην αποβάθρα να το βλέπω να φεύγει έχοντας μόνο το εισιτήριο μου για το Σαλβαδόρ και λίγα χρήματα που θα πλήρωνα για λίγες μέρες στο ξενοδοχείο. Έσκισα το εισιτήριο μου και αποφάσισα να δοκιμάσω την τύχη μου στο όνειρο μου να διδάσκω capoeira.

Ζώντας από την Capoeira

Ο πρώτος μου μαθητής ήταν ένας gaúcho από την πόλη Pelótas ο οποίος είχε δει την παράσταση Olodum Maré στο Πόρτο Αλέγκρε. Καθώς περπατούσε στον δρόμο μια μέρα, είδε μία μικρή πινακίδα να υποδεικνύει μαθήματα Capoeira. Μπαίνοντας, με αναγνώρισε από το κομμάτι Furacões da Bahia” (..) “Αργότερα ήρθαν κι άλλοι, όπως ο Claudio Moreno” (..) “Άρχισα να διδάσκω Capoeira με το στυλ του Mestre Bimba. Παρ’ όλα αυτά, ένιωθα ότι κάτι έλειπε: το κίνητρο, το ενδιαφέρον, η τεχνογνωσία, κι έτσι άρχισα να προσθέτω ορισμένα πράγματα στη μέθοδο ώστε να την κάνω πιο κατάλληλη για τη δεδομένη στιγμή και τις συνθήκες” (..) “ Εκείνη την περίοδο ένιωθα πολύ μόνος και απομονωμένος, τη νύχτα στο δωμάτιο μου άκουγα τραγούδια που μιλούσαν για τη Bahia και έκλαιγα. Τα Σαββατοκύριακα και τις διακοπές ένιωθα χωρίς σκοπό και η καρδιά μου άρχιζε να υποφέρει. Εκείνες οι μέρες ήταν ανυπόφορες, έτσι άρχισα να δίνω μαθήματα τα Σαββατοκύριακα για να περνάω λιγότερο χρόνο μόνος.

Ιδρύοντας την ABADÁ Capoeira.

“(..)” Η ιδέα για την ABADÁ μου ήρθε λίγο μετά αφού πέρασα αυτή τη δύσκολη περίοδο. Η έλλειψη μιας τυπικής δομής για τις τάξεις, ενός χώρου για μελέτη και διδασκαλία, η ανάγκη για τον σχεδιασμό ενός βασικού πλάνου μαθήματος, για συζήτηση των τεχνικών και των διαφόρων σκέψεων και για τον καθορισμό των βαθμίδων ήταν όλα σημαντικά. Αλλά νομίζω αρχικά η ώθηση ήταν να δώσω μια τύπου οικογενειακή δομή σε όλους αυτούς τους ανθρώπους που είχαν αφήσει πίσω τους τις πόλεις τους, τις οικογένειες τους, για να αφιερώσουν τους εαυτούς τους στην Capoeira. Ίσως επειδή πέρασα όσα πέρασα, πήρα μέρος σε μαθήματα που έδιναν άλλοι μαθητές στο Ρίο και σε άλλες πολιτείες για να βρω μια σχέση η οποία κατά κάποιο τρόπο θα μας έδινε μια δομή και θα υποστήριξε τους νέους Capoeiristas” (..) “Η αναζήτηση του ονόματος διήρκησε πολύ επειδή έπρεπε να συνοψίζει όλα όσα ήταν ο οργάνωση και ταυτόχρονα να έχει μια βασική σχέση με την Capoeira.

(1) Corpo Fechado: Literally “Closed Body,” oral tradition tells of Capoeiristas who, through magic, had developed their internal energy (chi in the Chinese tradition) to the point where knives or even bullets could cause no harm.

(2) Gaucho: person from the south of Brazil.

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