Associação Brasileira de Apoio e Desenvolvimento da Arte – Capoeira

Puxada de Rede

A Puxada de rede surgiu após o período da escravidão, quando os negros não acharam oportunidades de se encaixar no mercado de trabalho e procuram seu sustento no mar. E assim uma parte destes negros se deslocam para as entranhas dos mangues, na região de Santo Amaro – BA. Esta foi umas das primeiras cidades onde viram negros trabalhando. A puxada da rede do xareu (um tipo de peixe) é uma das heranças mais interessantes dos tempos da escravidão, sobretudo pelo aspecto folclórico, que transforma um labor fatigante em uma das mais agradáveis atrações das praias baianas. Observe-se tendo em vista o desenvolvimento tecnológico da pesca e outros fatores relacionados com o meio ambiente, essa atividade artesanal encontra-se em decadência desde a década de 70, sendo exercida, esporadicamente, só por algumas das pequenas colônias de pescadores existentes ao longo da orla marítima da Bahia, e, além disso, sem o encanto e a magia dos tempos passados.
Nos meses decorrentes entre outubro e abril, esses peixes procuravam as águas quentes do litoral nordestino afim de procriarem. Então era a época certa para lançarem a rede ao mar.
Era uma atividade que exigia um esforço tremendo e um número muito grande de homens para a tarefa. Os pescadores iam para o mar de madrugada ou às vezes até à noite, para lançar a enorme rede, para só então de manhã puxarem. A puxada da rede era acompanhada de cânticos na maioria em ritmo triste que representavam a dificuldade da vida daqueles que tiram o seu sustento do mar.
Além dos cânticos, os atabaques e as batidas sincronizadas dos pés davam o ritmo para que os homens não desanimassem e continuassem a puxar a enorme rede, o que dava um ar de ritual e beleza àquela atividade. Quando enfim terminavam de puxar a rede, eram entoados cânticos em agradecimento à pescaria e o peixe era partilhado entre os pescadores e começava o festejo em comemoração.
Efetivamente embora ainda seja praticada, em escala muito reduzida, perdeu o seu antigo ritual e efeito sem os cânticos e marcação de pés que tanto a caracterizava e a embelezava no passado. A pesca do xareu se fazia principalmente nas águas das praias mas hoje infelizmente está praticamente extinta.

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“Puxada de Rede” came after the period of slavery, when blacks could not find opportunities to fit into the labor market and started to seek their sustenance at sea. Therefore, some of these blacks moved to the interior of the mangroves area, in the region of Santo Amaro – BA. This was one of the first cities where they saw blacks working. The net fishing of the Xaréu (a type of fish) is one of the legacies of the most interesting days of slavery, especially because of its folkloric aspect, that turns a tedious labor into one of the nicest attraction of the Bahia’s beaches. Considering the technological development of fishing and other factors related to the environment, this craft activity is in decline since the 70s, being carried on, sporadically, only by a few small fishing colonies along the coastline of Bahia, and, moreover,without the charm and magic of ancient times.
In the months between October and April, these fish were seeking the warm waters of the northeastern coast in order to procreate. That was the right time to launch the network to the sea.
It was an activity that required tremendous effort and a very large number of men to complete the task. The fishermen used to go to sea at dawn or sometimes even at night, to launch a huge network, and only in the morning they were pulling it back. The network was being pulled together with songs mostly with a sad rhythm that was representing the difficulty of life of those who were earning their livelihood from the sea.
In addition to singing, the drums and the synchronized beats of the feet were given the momentum so that men wouldn’t be discouraged and continued to pull the huge network. The whole procedure was given an air of ritual and beauty to that activity. When they finally were ending up pulling the network, they were singing songs to thank for the fishery and for the fish which were being shared among them before beginning the celebration.
Indeed, although it is still practiced in a very small scale, it has lost its ancient ritual and effect, without the singing and marking feet that both characterized and embellished in the past. Fishing xaréu was being done mainly in the waters of the beaches, but unfortunately is now almost extinct.

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Η “Puxada de Rede” δημιουργήθηκε μετά από μια περίοδο σκλαβιάς, όταν οι μαύροι δεν μπορούσαν να βρουν ευκαιρίες στην αγορά εργασίας και άρχισαν να αναζητούν την τροφή τους στη θάλασσα. Συνεπώς, μερικοί από αυτούς τους μαύρους μετακινήθηκαν στην περιοχή των ριζοφόρων, στην περιοχή Santo Amaro – BA. Αυτή ήταν μια από τις πρώτες πόλεις όπου είδαν μαύρους να δουλεύουν. Το ψάρεμα με δίχτυα του Xaréu (είδος ψαριού) είναι ένα από τα κληροδοτήματα των πιο ενδιαφερουσών ημερών της σκλαβιάς, κυρίως εξαιτίας της παραδοσιακής πτυχής του, που μετατρέπει μια κουραστική εργασία στο πιο ωραίο θέαμα στις παραλίες της Bahia. Λαμβάνοντας υπόψη την τεχνολογική εξέλιξη της αλιείας και άλλους παράγοντες σχετικούς με το περιβάλλον, αυτή η δραστηριότητα βρίσκεται σε ύφεση από τη δεκαετία του ’70, και συνεχίζεται, σποραδικά, από λίγες μόνο αποικίες αλιείας κατά μήκος της ακτής της Bahia, και επιπλέον, χωρίς τη γοητεία και τη μαγεία των παλιών χρόνων.
Κατά τους μήνες μεταξύ Οκτώβρη και Απρίλη, αυτά τα ψάρια αναζητούσαν τα ζεστά νερά της βορειοανατολικής ακτής με σκοπό να αναπαραχθούν. Εκείνη ήταν η κατάλληλη στιγμή για να ρίξουν τα δίχτυα στη θάλασσα.
Ήταν μια δραστηριότητα που απαιτούσε τρομακτική προσπάθεια και πολλούς άνδρες για να ολοκληρώσουν την αποστολή. Οι ψαράδες πήγαιναν στη θάλασσα την αυγή και μερικές φορές τη νύχτα, για να στήσουν ένα τεράστιο δίκτυο, το οποίο θα το έβγαζαν έξω το πρωί. Τα δίχτυα τα τραβούσαν έξω με τραγούδια, κυρίως με λυπητερό ρυθμό, ο οποίος αντιπροσώπευε τη δυσκολία της ζωής εκείνων που κέρδιζαν τα ως προς το ζην τους από τη θάλασσα.
Εκτός από το τραγούδι, τα τύμπανα και οι συντονισμένοι ρυθμοί των ποδιών έδιναν τη ορμή ώστε οι άντρες να μην αποκαρδιώνονται και να συνεχίζουν να τραβούν έξω τα τεράστια δίχτυα. Ολόκληρη η διαδικασία έδινε έναν αέρα τελετουργικό και μια ομορφιά σε αυτή τη δραστηριότητα. Όταν επιτέλους τελείωναν με το μάζεμα των διχτυών, τραγουδούσαν τραγούδια για να ευχαριστήσουν για τη ψαριά την οποία μοιράζονταν μεταξύ τους πριν τη γιορτή.
Όντως, παρά το γεγονός ότι ασκείται ακόμα σε πολύ μικρή κλίμακα, έχει χάσει το παλιό του τελετουργικό και επίδραση χωρίς το τραγούδι και τα σημαδεμένα πόδια που ήταν τα δύο που χαρακτήριζαν και διάνθιζαν αυτή τη δραστηριότητα στο παρελθόν. Το ψάρεμα των xaréu γινόταν κυρίως στα νερά των παραλιών αλλά δυστυχώς τώρα έχει σχεδόν εκλείψει.

One response

  1. biianca menezes

    – Muito Bom , Isso vai me ajudar

    April 22, 2015 at 9:43 pm

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